HISPANIC/LATINO POPULATION INFORMATION
This ethnic group includes any person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. According to 2020 Census data, there are 62.1 million Hispanics living in the United States. This group represents 18.9 percent of the total U.S. population, the nation’s second largest racial or ethnic group after non-Hispanic whites. In 2020, among Hispanic subgroups, Mexicans ranked as the largest at 61.6 percent. Following this group are Puerto Ricans (9.6 percent), Central Americans (9.3 percent), South Americans (6.4 percent), Other Hispanic/Latino (including Spanish) (5.8 percent), and Cuban (3.9 percent). In 2020, states with the largest Hispanic populations were Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, and Texas. In 2020, 25.7 percent of Hispanics were under the age 18 compared to 53 percent of non-Hispanic whites.
Language fluency varies among Hispanic subgroups who reside within the mainland United States. 2019 census data shows that 71.1 percent of Hispanics speak a language other than English at home, including 70.4 percent of Mexicans, 58.9 percent of Puerto Ricans, 77.7 percent of Cubans, 86.2 percent of Central Americans. 28.4 percent of Hispanics state that they are not fluent in English.
According to 2019 U.S. Census Bureau data, 71.8 percent of Hispanics in comparison to 94.6 percent non-Hispanic whites had a high school diploma or higher. 18.8 percent of Hispanics in comparison to 40.1 percent of non-Hispanic whites had a bachelor's degree or higher. 5.7 percent of Hispanics held a graduate or advanced professional degree, as compared to 15.1 percent of the non-Hispanic white population.
According to a U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 2021 data, 22.9 percent of Hispanics, in comparison to 15.0 percent non-Hispanic whites, worked within service occupations. 24.5 percent of Hispanics in comparison to 42.8 percent of whites worked in managerial or professional occupations. Among full-time year-round workers in 2020, the average Hispanic/Latino median household income was $55,321 in comparison to $74,912 for non-Hispanic white households. In 2020, the unemployment rate for Hispanics was 10.4, as compared to 7.5 for non-Hispanic whites according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. In 2020, the U.S. Census Bureau reported that 17 percent of Hispanics in comparison to 8.2 percent of non-Hispanic whites were living at the poverty level.
It is significant to note that Hispanics have the highest uninsured rates of any racial or ethnic group within the United States. In 2020, the Census Bureau reported that 49.9 percent of Hispanics had private insurance coverage, as compared to 73.9 percent for non-Hispanic whites. Among Hispanic subgroups, examples of coverage varied: 47.9 percent of Mexicans, 56.3 percent of Puerto Ricans, 57.4 percent of Cubans, 41.7 percent of Central Americans. In 2020, 35.9 percent of all Hispanics had Medicaid or public health insurance coverage, as compared to 33.8 percent for non-Hispanic whites. Public health insurance coverage varied among Hispanic subgroups: 36.4 percent of Mexicans, 43.7 percent of Puerto Ricans, 33.7 of Cubans, and 33.0 percent of Central Americans. Those without health insurance coverage varied among Hispanic subgroups: 20.3 percent of Mexicans, 8.0 percent of Puerto Ricans, 14.0 percent of Cubans and 19.4 percent of Central Americans. In 2020, 18.3 percent of the Hispanic population was not covered by health insurance, as compared to 5.4 percent of the non-Hispanic white population per Census Bureau report.
According to 2020 Census Bureau projections, the 2060 life expectancies at birth for Hispanics are 86.5 years, with 88.2 years for women, and 84.8 years for men. For non-Hispanic whites, the projected life expectancies are 85.6 years, with 87.4 years for women, and 84.0 years for men. Hispanic health is often shaped by factors such as language/cultural barriers, lack of access to preventive care, and the lack of health insurance. According to 2019 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, some of the leading causes of death among Hispanics include cancer, heart disease, unintentional injuries (accidents), stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease. In 2020, the leading cause of death for Hispanics was COVID-19. Some other causes of mortality that significantly affect Hispanics include chronic lower respiratory diseases (including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), liver disease, influenza and pneumonia, suicide, and kidney disease.
Hispanics have higher rates of obesity than non-Hispanic whites. There also are disparities among Hispanic subgroups. For instance, the rate of low birthweight infants is higher for the total Hispanic population in comparison to non-Hispanic whites, and Puerto Ricans have the highest rates of low birthweights among Hispanics.
The Hispanic Population: 2010
Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010
Language Use in the United States: 2011
Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2020
Projected Life Expectancy at Birth by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States: 2015 to 2060
Income and Poverty in the United States: 2020